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Sore Throat Relief for Singers and Vocalists

Sore Throat Relief for Singers and Vocalists (in fact anyone who is serious about keeping a healthy voice)

This guide is written primarily for the singer, but is useful to everyone who needs sore throat relief or suffers from a hoarse voice.

Our vocal cords are delicate membranes surrounded by muscle. These membranes need to come together solidly to create a clear sound. Sometime infection or over-use can cause these membranes to swell, resulting in hoarseness. Continued over-use, shouting, and even whispering can, over time, result in damage of the vocal cords, which needs medical attention.

Warm-up your voice before you start. You wouldn’t see an athlete tearing around the track without warming up their body first, so offer your voice the same consideration. It doesn’t take much effort.

• Start with a few deep, controlled breaths, followed by some humming.

• Hum your favourite song, if scales are not your thing.

• Use your voice to make a squeaky door being opened sound (use the ee sound to slide up and down your vocal range).

• Move onto singing some of your gentler songs, before you start tackling the belters.

• Also know your limits. Don’t try to sing too high, or too low until you are warmed up enough. Start at a comfortable range and extend from there.

Avoid abusing your voice throughout the day. Don’t talk for long periods of time – you will find your voice will get hoarse. Avoid whispering. This is stressful to your voice and will cause vocal fatigue. Do not shout over loud noises, such as machinery or concerts. I’ve know a few who have yelled at rock concerts, etc, and haven’t been able to sing for months afterwards. It’s just not worth it!   Talking for prolonged periods is also a hazzard for your voice. So many teachers, sales reps and call-centre staff end up having problems with their voice because of not taking care of their voice, or giving it enough rest to recover.

Vocal hydration is extremely important. Our cords are delicate membranes, which dry out very easily (especially when talking or singing in dry, smoky atmospheres). So drink plenty of water.  There are a number of sprays and lozenges on the market which can help. Also steam inhalation is good at getting moisture onto your cords.

Drinking – (alcohol that is!. We’ve all needed Dutch Courage at some point, but alcohol can lead to damage of your vocal cords. Huh? I hear you say. Alcohol numbs our nervous system, and helps lose our inhibitions. For example, Normally, when you’ve not had a drink, you know when your voice is tired, or when you have pushed your voice too far because you will feel discomfort in your throat. However, since you’ve had your drink, the alcohol can numb your throat, loosen your inhibitions, pushing your voice past its usual boundaries (this may take the form of shouting or singing too loud, too high, too low, or simply for too long a time period) and you can’t feel those warning signs. You wake up in the morning, with a sore head and no voice for several days (or in some cases several weeks!)

Smoking. There are no health benefits to smoking, so either cut down or stop completely. Smoking affects your lung capacity, irritates the membranes in the windpipe, resulting excessive mucus and a cough, which can inflame the vocal cords, as well as all the other health problems associated with smoking. That leads me onto recreational drugs – if drinking and smoking are bad – drugs are even worse. Don’t go there!

A few tips to help you recover from a sore throat:

1. REST!!

2. Drink plenty of Water.

3. Avoid Tea, Coffee, Cream & Alcohol

4. Take Vitamin C tablets or eat fruits/ vegetables rich in Vitamin C to aid your body’s natural defences. Hot Lemon & Honey or Blackcurrant both contain vitamin C and anti-viral properties and fresh ginger has natural anti-inflammatory properties – grate a little ginger and add it to hot water, sweeten with honey if required.

5. Severe, violent coughing can injure the vocal cords. Cough Syrup, Throat Sprays and Lozenges can help.

6. Hot Water Steam Inhalation, with or without a few drops of Eucalyptus, Peppermint or other Essential Oil helps to clear the sinuses, and get moisture onto the vocal cords

7. Do NOT attempt to Sing and avoid Talking until you feel better to allow the inflammation an opportunity to reduce. This may be even take several weeks

8. On recovery start with some gentle humming for 5-10 minutes at a time and slowly build up to a few vocal exercises in your mid- range gradually expanding the range over several days. The rate of recovery will depend on the severity of illness and how experienced a singer you are. Any recurrence of hoarseness stop and rest the voice for another couple of days.

And Most Importantly – Take time out. We all need to have a break. You need a complete rest from singing at least once a week and I mean a complete rest. No practice, no singing along to your favourite records, no singing in the bath etc. Also if you done a hard day or long gig, then give your voice a rest the following day.

If symptoms continue, seek advice from your own Doctor.


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Panofka Vocal ABC

First Lessons in Singing

Heinrich Panofka (3/10/1807 – 18/11/1887) was a German violinist, voice teacher and composer. He became interested in the training of the voice, and with Bordogni he founded in 1842 an Académie de Chant. The aim of these exercises are to give the singing student more control over their voice, improving their breathing, working on the tone and resonance, improving their range and agility.

Panofka Vocal ABC – First Lessons In Singing

Although these scales are almost 200 years old, you will find that they are still used today in many voice institutions and singing lessons all around the world.

This compilation of 14 singing exercises date back to the early 19th Century when it was popular to vocalise along with piano accompaniment. They were traditionally sung wordless, but on vowel sound.

We suggest you use the vowel sounds to sing along:

  • Ah as in Apple
  • Eh as in Air
  • Ay as in Sky
  • Oh as in Orange
  • Ee as in Bee
  • Oo as in Room.

The practice of solfeggios is useful to instrumentalists and to those who intend to become composers, but is detrimental to those who wish to become singers. In fact, by commencing with the study of solfeggios, we break the established rules for developing and preserving the voice.

The human voice must mot be considered as a complete instrument upon which every kind and style of music can be executed.

It is only when the voice is fully developed that it is able, without injury to itself, to sing with the syllables do, re, mi, fa, etc.; in other words, to begin the practice of solfeggios.

Pupils, by beginning in this manner, give all their attention to intonation, and none to the quality of tone, or the manner of producing it. Now the least movement of the mouth, the tongue, the cavities of the nose, the cheeks, or even the teeth, will alter the quality of the tone of voice.

For example : when we sing “do”, we place the tongue to the roof of the mouth. When we sing “re”, we lift the tongue. To sing “mi”, we close the mouth before giving the tone. To sing fa, we first obstruct the emission of the voice to pronounce the F. And for sol, la and si, we move the tongue in various directions.

On every one of these syllables, the pupil, following the natural effects of the vocal mechanism, will alter the quality of tone, and contract faults , which afterward it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to rectify.

Thus people who have, before the change of voice, been accustomed to these movements of the tongue, find difficulty and sometime impossibility in the delivery of the higher tones, and the voice becomes false, weak and worthless.

The cause of this is evident. Pupils who practice solfeggios neglect the quality of the tone. Some open the mouth too wide, others not wide enough ; some sing through the nose, others in the throat, etc.

These few line will suffice to demonstrate that this manner of teaching the elements of singing before the change of voice has taken place, is the real cause of the loss of so many voices, of their bad quality and the weakness of the breathing organs.

In learning properly to deliver the voice and to vocalise on the vowel a (ah), instead of using the syllables do, re, etc., it is the ear which will lead pupils, not the notes. The vocal organs will, therefore, assume from the beginning the most natural position for singing, without the pupil bestowing special attention to it.

Convinced that teaching the elements should be summed up in a few clear and concise principles, easily understood, I offer in the following pages a preparatory method of singing, to those who would avoid the evils of commencing with the solfeggios.


First chapter of the preface of Panofka’s Vocal ABC.

Exercise 1 – Of the delivery of the voice
Exercise 2 – Agility 1 – Exercise on three tones
Exercise 3 – Agility 2 – Exercise on five tones
Exercise 4 – Agility 3 – The scale
Exercise 5 – Agility 4 – The scale: forte, less forte and piano
Exercise 6 – Exercises of three scales
Exercise 7 – Minor scales
Exercise 8 – Exercises extending the octave
Exercise 9 – Arpeggios 1
Exercise 10 – Arpeggios 2
Exercise 11 – Portamento exercise in fifths
Exercise 12 – Portamento exercise in octaves
Exercise 13 – Portamento exercise in broken chords
Exercise 14 – To swell the tone

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 1 - Developing Tone

On Delivery Of The Voice

In order that a tone be beautiful, it must be pure, clear and sonorous. The purity is obtained by an open and frank attack of the tone with a little stroke of the glottis, an infallible means to obtain a perfectly true intonation. The clearness will be acquired by the delivery of the vovel a (ah). The sonority depends upon a proper opening of the mouth, which should be done in a natural manner, taking care that it is without effort, and that the delivery of the tone is not obstructed.

From the first lesson the utmost attention must be given to the beauty of the tone.

It is presumed that the pupil is acquainted with the rudiments of music.

The teacher sings the seven tones of the scale, and the pupil repeats them, attacking the tone in the same manner : commencing with “C” the delivery of which is easy for all voices. The mouth must be open before delivering the tone ; for if the mouth is only opened just at the moment of attacking the tone, either a guttural or a nasal sound will be produced.

The teacher will then continue to make the pupil deliver, by chromatic degrees, all the tones, the emission of which is easy; ceasing immediately when the pupil has any difficulty in producing the tone.


The upper and lower tones which cannot be delivered at the beginning with perfect ease and sonority, must not be made the objects of special practice ; they will in a short time be developed, merely by the study of the study of the tones that are easy to deliver.

The exercises are written in chromatic progressions, commencing with “A” below the staff, and ascending to “G” above the fifth line; the teacher will find it easy to indicate the tone with which the pupil (whose voice he must have examined) should begin and end his exercises.

These should always be sung with full voice, taking care that it is never strained.

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 2 - Fluency On A 3rd

Agility – Exercise on Three Tones

The pupil having learned to deliver isolated tones, will now proceed to an exercise of three consecutive tones.

In this, the first tone should be attacked with a short stroke of the glottis. The teacher will first sing this exercise to the pupil.

Note – Beginners almost always lower the voice at the third tone. The best means to remedy this defect is to beat the time and mark the
third beat more distinctly.

The exercise must be first sung slowly and then progressively quicker.

In contralti the diversity of the register will become apparent in this exercise, either on the three tones D, E and F sharp, or on E flat, F and G, according to whether the first register ends with G or with F sharp. (…) In the voices of children the transition from one register to the other, although by no means so apparent as in the voices of adults, is nevertheless easily observed.

Consequently, in practising this exercise, the teacher must not lose sight on the union of the two registers. The best way to attain this result is not to let the pupil know that any difficulty of this kind is to be overcome ; and also, while breathing time, to assist him by an accented beat, as soon as he passes from the last tone of the first register to the first tone of the second register. The pupil, feeling himself supported, will overcome the difficulty without thinking of it.

It must be remembered that this union of the registers is more easily accomplished in the voices of children than in those of adults ; especially of women, whose voices have often a power and vigor which give too great intensity to the extreme tones of each register. In such cases the passage from one register to the other cannot take place without showing a perceptible difference; and it becomes, of course, more difficult to give homogeneousness to the two registers. In the voices, however, of some persons, especially from the Southern climates, this union is sometimes attained without any difficulty.

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 3 - Fluency On A 5th Scale

Exercise On Five Tones

The same rules as No 2. In this exercise, the fifth tone is generally sung too low.  The teacher, therefore, while beating tie, must accent the 5th tone.

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 4 - The Major Scale

The first tone to be attacked with a short stroke of the glottis, and all the tones sung in moderate movement, with equal force and full voice.

When the pupil can sing all the scales by chromati degrees, from the tone which they can easily leliver up to the last one, rendered with the same facility, the teacher can make them sing each scale three times. first  forte, then messo forte, and the third time piano; at first moderato and then progressively quicker, according to the flexibility of the voice of the pupil.

This exercise will do much toward developing the respiration

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 5 - Developing Tone and Breathing.

The aim of this exercise is the same as exercise 4 –  to sing the scale three times. Starting loud (forte), then a little quieter (mezzo-forte) and then quietly (piano), whilst maintaining accuracy with your note placement.  This exercise will do much toward developing the respiration.

The first tone to be attacked with a short stroke of the glottis, and all the tones sung in moderate movement, with equal force and full voice.

When the pupil can sing all the scales by chromatic degrees, from the tone which they can easily deliver, up to the last one, rendered with the same facility, the teacher will make him sing each scale three times: first forte, then mezzo-forte, and the third time piano; at first moderato, and then progressively quicker, according to the flexibility of the voice of the pupil.

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 6 - Agility and Breathing

Exercises of Three Scales

This exercise requires equality and roundness and the avoidance of precipitation.

In singing the three scales a great step has been made toward what is called “establishing the voice” (poser la voix). To establish anything is to give it a fixed place ; thus, the exercises practised until now have, so to say, fixed the tones in the larynx, which has become a sort of keyboard, where each tone has its proper place. Consequently the pupil will never sing false, if he only thinks of the tone to be sung before he delivers it.

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 7 - The Minor Scale

This scale, which is of a melancholic character, requires great attention.

It is the augmented second between the sixth and seventh tones of the ascending and between the second and the third tones of the descending scale, which gives it a particulat charm; consequently it requires great care in the intonation of these intervals.

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 8 - Agility Scale (9th)

Exercise Extending The Octave

This scale works on your vocal agility. It is a 9th scale (an octave – 8th and an extra note) up and down the scale twice. The first time sing it loud (forte) and the second time sing it quiet (piano). This exercise will do much in making the voice flexible.  Also help with your tone and breath control.

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 9 - Arpeggio

This exercise is an arpeggio scale (1,3,5,8,5,3,1 interval x 2) This exercise then increases in semitones up the scale. 

The rendering of the arpeggios in triplets and semiquavers requires much attention with regard to intonation.  The teacher, while beating time, will do well to accent the final tone

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 10 - Arpegppio

This exercise is an arpgeggio exercise (1,3,5,8,10 – 8,5,3,1 intervals x2). This exercise then increases in semitones up the scale. 

The rendering of the arpeggios in triplets and semiquavers requires much attention with regard to intonation.  The teacher, while beating time, will do well to accent the final tone

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 11 - Portamento Exercise In 5ths


Portamento (Italian) means a technique of gliding from one note to another without actually defining the intermediate notes; a smooth sliding between two pitches. This exercise requires you to start the first interval of a 5th loud (forte), then repeating it quieter (piano). This exercise then increases in semitones up the scale. 

To connect two tones well in a slow movement is called portamento.

What has been learned until now, is the foundation of singing. To deliver the scales with equality. roundness and correctness, and with the lights and shades of forte, mezzo-forte and piano, is one of the most difficult exercises.

The result of the studies thus far is to have establsshed the voice, smoothed the larynx, accustomed the ear to difficult intonations and considerably to have strengthened respiration.

The pupil knows how to sing in quick movement ; consequently it will be easy for him to sing in slow movement, as he can already manage his breathing and his voice.

In now applying the portamento to fifths,* the pupil must connect the key-note with the fifth, avoiding either abruptness or mewing, but in a natural and graceful manner.

The teacher must sing a series of fifths by chromatic degrees, that the pupil may well understand the manner of singing portamento, both forte and piano.

The same rules must be applied to the study of the octave (n°12) and of the broken chords (n°13).

* I have selected the fifth, because it is the most sympathetic interval to the ear, as well as to the voice, and for this reason the easiest to be sung correctly.

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 12 - Portamento exercise in octaves

Portamento (Italian) means a technique of gliding from one note to another without actually defining the intermediate notes; a smooth sliding between two pitches. This exercise requires you to sing the first octave loud (forte) and the second octave quiet (piano). The exercise then increases in semitones up the scale. 

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 13 - Portamento exercise on Arpeggio

Portamento (Italian) means a technique of gliding from one note to another without actually defining the intermediate notes; a smooth sliding between two pitches. 

Panofka Vocal Exercise No 14 - Swell On The Tone

Swelling The Tone

Start the note quietly, increasing your volume and then bring it back to quiet. The exercise will then increase in a series of semitones up the scale. 

Swelling a tone is holding it the required time, while increasing and diminishing its power.

This exercise is a most difficult one. it requires a well-practised ear, in order to preserve the right intonation, and also a sufficient respiration. It has been placed at the last, because the previous exercises have prepared the pupil to execute it with ease and correctness. The pupil must stop holding the tone as soon as he finds his breathing becoming weak, and he must also take special care not to force a prolongation of the swell.

Start the note quietly, increasing your volume and then bring it back to quiet. The exercise will then increase in a series of semitones up the scale. 

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Singing With Emotion

Singing With Emotion

Singing With Emotion Vocal Exercise to the song What Shall We Do With A Drunken Sailor.

What Shall We Do With A Drunken Sailor is such a well-known Children’s Song, and it is incredibly wordy, which is great for warming up lips and facial muscles. Also it is a fun song to sing when you need to work on emotive singing  Try singing each verse with a different emotional emphasis as described in the video below..

We have used each verse of What Shall We Do With A Drunken Sailor to try singing it while expressing a different emotion. We prompt you on each verse to sing either Happy, Drunk, Scared (panic), Angry, Flirty, Sad, Secretive, Funny. We have included the sheet music and the lyrics.

Observe what each emotion does to your voice whilst singing.

Do the dynamics change?

Does your vocal quality change?

Do some verses feel easier than others to sing?

How does it come across?

Do you feel different when singing that emotion?

What could you do to improve the feeling you are trying to replicate?

Ask yourself these questions and maybe get someone in to listen to you and let them guess what emotion you are trying to put across. You can use this exercise as a singing warm-up, a diction or emotive exercise, or you may just want it for the nursery rhyme backing track.

Singing exercises when done on a regular basis, will help strengthen, increase the flexibility and the range of your voice too. They will also help with your tone and resonance and placement of the sound.  This particular exercise is for all voice ranges, but please see our other videos for Low, Middle and Higher Voice Ranges if you think these are more suitable to your needs.






Verse 1

What shall we do with the drunken sailor,
What shall we do with the drunken sailor,
What shall we do with the drunken sailor,
Early in the morning?

Hooray and up she rises,
Hooray and up she rises,
Hooray and up she rises,
Early in the morning!

2. Put him in the longboat until he’s sober, (x 3)
Early in the morning!

3.Put him in the scuppers with the hose pipe on him, (x 3)
Early in the morning!

4. Pull out the plug and wet him all over, (x 3)
Early in the morning!

5. Give ‘im a dose of salt and water, (x 3),
Early in the morning!

6. Scrape off his chest hair with an old razor, (x 3)
Early in the morning!

7. Stick ‘im on his back with a mustard plaster, (x 3)
Early in the morning!

8. Put him in a leaky boat and make him bale it, (x 3)
Early in the morning!


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Choosing the perfect audition song

Choosing the perfect audition song

Choosing your perfect audition song can be pretty overwhelming especially when you have only one chance to perform it.   You need to choose a song which will showcase your vocals and make you stand out from the crowd.  Choose your song wisely as the wrong audition song can really affect your confidence and your goal.

Some ideas on choosing the perfect audition song:

  • Go through the list of songs you sing or listen on Spotify or Youtube for song ideas
  • Find a song that suits your vocal style and range.
  • Ask yourself is it a song that showcases your voice.
  • Is the song suitable for the genre or the role you are auditioning for.
  • Check the audition guidelines. They may already provide a list of pre-approved songs, only want ballads or ask you to prepare multiple song choices.
  • Avoid choosing a song you think the people holding the audition want to hear if you struggle to sound good singing it.
  • Your song shouldn’t be too easy, but also don’t pick something so difficult, that you struggle to sing it.

Try to avoid really well-known songs and completely unknown songs unless the audition asks for it.  If you pick a really well-known song eg Angels by Robbie Williams.  The people running the audition would have heard that song so many times before or they may compare how you sing against Robbie Williams, unless you know you can really ace it or put your own twist on the song.

Equally, choosing an unknown song may leave the people running the audition with nothing to compare it to, or spend time wondering who the song is by, or asking colleagues, when then should be listening to you.  Choose something in between these two extremes.  Something known, but not too obsure.

Think about a song with a big climax or big ending.  Go out with a bang rather than fade away.

Beware of current audition song trends.  There are so many times at auditions where people tend to sing the same song.  Avoid the latest big ballad or popular musical number. You want to stand out and make the people holding the audition to take notice of you, not groan and switch off at having to hear the same song again – no matter how well you sing it.

Once you have found a few possible songs. Try them out.  Sing along to them. Get your friends to listen to you, or record yourself singing them and listen to the recordings.  Ask for feedback on your sing and your performance.  What is good? What can be improved on?  Is it good enough to make you stand out in your audition?

Practice, Practice, Practice. Then practice some more.

Check how long you have for your audition slot.  Some auditions only want 16 bars or a verse, chorus and close.   If the song you have selected only shows your voice off towards the end of the song, consider coming in from the second verse.   Are you using dots (sheet music)?  Then clearly mark where you want to come in from. If you are using tracks, then it’s more difficult, but maybe get a friend to edit it for you, or there are many companies out there who will edit tracks to suit professionally.   Keep your song as short as possible.  The last thing you want is to be cut off before the climax of your song because you’ve run out of time.

It’s also a good idea to make multiple versions of your song—one very short, one medium length, and one longer in length—in case your preferred length is too long for a particular audition’s request and you need to use the shortened version. That way you’ll already be prepared if the people holding the audition asks you to sing more for them.

It’s always better to be over prepared. Have a back-up song prepared just in case you are asked to sing something else.  Have a different styled song if possible.  This may be because the people running the audition like what they hear, or they want to see what else you can do, or they may think your voice may lend itself to a different style.

It’s completely normal to feel nervous when performing your audition piece for real.  Make sure you are well rehearsed and that you know your song and lyrics inside out. Be well prepared on the day, that you have your music, routines, drinks and snacks all ready and that you arrive in plenty of time for your slot.  Warm up and practice at the venue before your slot, so that you walk into your audition with confidence and deliver a knock-out performance.


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Learn To Sing

Learn To Sing

Learn To Sing

Learn To Sing with Successful Singing. We have lots of online advice and articles to help you learn to sing. Use our vocal exercises, scales and voice lessons, to help strengthen and develop your singing voice. Whether you’re a novice or seasoned singer our videos and exercises will help you get the most out of your voice. All our exercises are free to use online..

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Vaccai Vocal Exercises

Vaccai Vocal Exercises – Vocalises

Vaccai Practical Method of Italian Singing.

The Vaccai Practical Method of Italian Singing has long been an indispensable introduction to classical singing and singing in Italian.  Rather than using scales and exercises, Vaccai uses a series of short songs each highlighting a particular skill and aspect of classical singing.

This compilation of 15 singing lessons date back to the early 19th Century when it was popular to vocalise along with piano accompaniment.  These video exercises have been re-created with both English and Italian lyrics and available in keys suitable for High, Middle and Low voice ranges.  These singing exercises are still used today in training the singing voice.  We have made the audio tracks available in the different keys to listen to or if you need to purchase them.


Lesson No 1 – The Diatonic Scale

Lesson 1 (part ii) Intervals Of The Third


Lesson 2 II – Intervals Of The Fourth



Lesson 2 II (part ii) – Intervals Of The fifth




Lesson 3 III – Intervals Of The Sixth



Lesson 4 IV – Intervals Of The Seventh


Lesson 4 IV (part ii) – Intervals Of The Octave




Lesson 5 V  – Half tones or Semitones



Lesson 6 VI – Syncopation




Lesson 7 VII – Runs and Scale Passages




Lesson 8 VIII – The Appoggiatura taken from above or below



Lesson 8 VIII (Part ii) – The Acciaccatura


Lesson 9 IX –  The Mordent


Lesson 9 IX (Part ii) Different Ways Of Executing The Mordent


Lesson 10 X – Introductory To The Gruppetto Or Turn

Lesson 10 X (Part ii) The Gruppetto


Lesson 11 XI – Introduction Of The Trill Or Shake


Lesson 12 XII – Runs And Scale Passages



Lesson 13 XIII – The Portamento


Lesson 13 XIII part (ii) – Allegretto





Lesson XV (Lesson 15 – track 21)


About Nicola Vaccai

VACCAI was born on March the 15th, 1790, at Tolentino, near Ancona, Italy, but the family soon moved to Pesaro, where they remained about twelve years. This is where Niccolò received his first instruction in music.  He was then brought to Rome for the purpose of studying law for around five years; then, renouncing this profession as distasteful.  He then devoted himself entirely to music, taking lessons in counterpoint under Jannaconi, and later { 1812) studying the art of opera composition under the guidance of Paisiello, at Naples. While in Naples he wrote two cantatas and other church-music; in 1814 his first opera, I solitari di Scozia, was brought out at the Teatro nuovoin that city.  Shortly after, he returned to Venice, where he stayed seven years, writing an opera , and also several ballets; yet none of these ventures succeeded in winning for their author even the evanescent vogue of an Italian opera-composer; he consequently gave over dramatic composition in 1820 and turned his attention to instruction in singing, a vocation in which he was eminently successful in Venice, Trieste and Vienna.

Again devoting his energies to composition, he wrote operas for several leading Italian theatres,  still without success; but few of his dramatic works became known abroad, among them being La Pastorella, Timur Chan, Pietro il Gran, and Giulietta e Romeo.  The last-named opera is considered his best, and its third act, especially, was so much liked that it has frequently been substituted for the same act of Bellini’s opera of like name, not only in Italian theatres, but even in Paris and London.  To the former city Vaccai journeyed in 1829, visiting London a few years later, and in both attained to great and deserved popularity as a singing-teacher.  Again returning to Italy, he recommenced writing operas, one of this period beingGiovanna Grey, written for Malibran, in honor of whom he composed, after her decease, in co-operation with Donizetti. Mercadante and others, a funeral cantata.  Most of these operas also met with hardly more than a bare succés d’estime.  In 1838, however, he was appointed to succeed Basili as head-master and instructor of composition at the Milan Conservatory, which position he held until 1841 when he retired to Pesaro.  Here his last opera, Virginia, was written for the Teatro Argentino at Rome.  He died at Pesaro August 5, 1848.

Besides sixteen operas, he composed a number of cantatas, church-music of various descriptions, arias, duets and romances.  Although unable to secure a niche among Italy’s favorite dramatic composers, Vaccai’s lasting renown as a singing-master shows that he was possessed of solid, if not brilliant, artistic attainments.  His famous “Metodo pratico di canto italiano per camera” [London, 1832] is still a standard work in great request, and his “Dodici ariette per camera per l’insegnamento del belcanto italiano” are scarcely less popular.

The general plan of the “Practical Method” is to render study easy and attractive, without omitting essentials.  No exercise exceeds the limit of an octave and a fourth (c’-f’’, transposable to suit any voice).  There are fifteen “Lessons,” which are not bare solfeggio on single vowels or syllables, but melodious exercises-for scale-practice, for skips of thirds. fourths, etc., up to octaves; on semitones, runs, syncopations, and all graces usually met with-written to smooth Italian verses.
The extraordinary and undiminished popularity of this method is attested by the numerous editions through which it has run; yet it is not merely the method for dilettanti, but can be used profitably in conjunction with any other system of voice-cultivation, being admirably calculated for strengthening and equalizing the medium register, for giving confidence in taking difficult intervals, and for enforcing habits of precise and distinct articulation and phrasing.

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Singing With An Accompanist

singing with accopanistSinging with an accompanist

As a singer you may want to seek out an accompanist that you can work with. So here are a few tips to help build a good working relationship with each other.


It is important that you both get along and can work as a team as you may well want them to accompany you at auditions etc, or enlist their help to make rehearsal tapes for you, especially if you don’t play yourself. You accompanist will nurture your singing and if things go well, you may well work together for many years as a successful team.

Provide a Copy of the music

When working with an accompanist, make sure that they have their own copy of the music. They will need to make their own notes and be able to take the music home to practise between rehearsals. Make sure that the copy is clear and if you are taping pages together, do it on the back, leaving the front clear for making notes.

Where to stand

Whilst practicing, don’t stand at their shoulder breathing down their neck. If possible stand in front so that the accompanist can see you. They can then watch you for any subtle cues or see your breath pattern to see when you are about to start each phrase.

What key

An accompanist who can transpose music instantaneously is very rare, however, there are some electric keyboards/pianos which have an inbuilt transposing function which can change key at the press of a button. Decide with your accompanist which key you will be singing in. You may wish to change to one more suitable and easier for you to sing in. however with respect to your pianist, some keys are easier to play in that others, so be prepared to compromise.


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An Introduction To Opera

introduction to operaAn Introduction To Opera

Opera was developed in Western Europe in the late 16th century. A combination of mixing music and drama.

The Baroque period developed in the last decades of the 16th century. It is distinguished, above all, by the development of what has become known as dramatic monody. Here a simple form of melody closely follows the rhythms and intonations of speech, accompanied by simple if occasionally startling chords. The new technique of composition made opera possible. Plays with songs and dances were one thing, but works providing a dramatic combination of words and music throughout were something different.

There were three principal elements from the ancient world that influenced the development of opera: Greek and Roman tragedy, ancient rhetoric, and the work of the philosophers Plato and Aristotle. Interest in classical Greek tragedy brought with it the understanding that music and dance had been essential elements of performance. With the ancient music now lost, a new music was created. At the same time the rules and conventions of classical Greek and Roman rhetoric came to be reflected in drama. The new art of opera could also seek theoretical support from the works of Plato and Aristotle.

From Plato came the idea that certain kinds of music were rightly associated with certain states of mind or soul. In the philosophical dialogue The Republic Plato’s hero Socrates suggests that some kinds of music should be banned, because of the effect they have on character. Others are to be encouraged as fostering bravery or prudence. This was at the basis of what became the Doctrine of the Affections, the association of certain pieces of music with certain states of mind, so that a sad song, for example, might both express the feeling of the singer and arouse a similar feeling in those who heard it. From Aristotle came the now fundamental connection of music with poetry and rhetoric, together with the suggested moral purpose of drama. Through the proper exercise of the emotions of pity and fear, exercised on suitable subjects, an audience would undergo a moral cleansing, a catharsis. Opera, then, had a moral purpose. It was soon, of course, to have a political one.

From the very beginning, opera brought together all the arts. It involved painting, poetry, drama, dance and music, making it the most complex of art forms. It was, as Samuel Johnson later pointed out, exotic and irrational, and, as many have found, remarkably expensive. It remained, nevertheless, of continuing social and political importance.

Opera development around Europe and beyond


Early Opera

There was always argument about who composed the first opera. Some of his contemporaries regarded the Roman composer Cavalieri’s La rappresentatione di anima e di corpo (The Representation of Soul and Body), from 1600, as the first true example. Written for the Oratorian movement of St Philip Neri, and with a dramatic content recalling that of medieval morality plays, combining drama with the new music, the work had some claim to priority. Allegorical figures dispute in a work that seeks to show the superiority of the spiritual. The composer himself claimed to have been the first to unite music and drama in this way, although rivals claimed to have done the same things some years before.

While Cavalieri’s work entertained and edified the entire College of Cardinals in Rome, other early operas were designed as court entertainments of a more secular kind. Such works were staged, notably, for the Medici rulers in Florence and, most memorably of all, at Mantua. It was there that Monteverdi had his Orfeo staged in 1607, followed the next year by Arianna, now lost. The subject of Orfeo (Orpheus) had already been treated in Florence by the composers Peri and by Caccini. The story had an obvious relevance. The legendary musician Orpheus, grieving at the loss of his beloved Eurydice, attempts to save her from the Underworld by the power of his music and is almost successful, thwarted only at the last minute by his own doubts. Orpheus not only demonstrates the importance of music. He is also represented as a shepherd among shepherds, making it possible for the poet and composer to draw on an existing literary and musical tradition. Pastoral poems and romances were set in a conventional Arcadia, where the only troubles that arose came from the thwarted love of amorous shepherds, whose heartache often proved fatal. The Italian madrigal, the part-songs of the 16th century, often set pastoral verses, drawing on another tradition of the ancient world. Here the life of the shepherd was idealised in an urban or court view of the country, a convention that could present the ageing Queen Elizabeth of England as Oriana, Queen of the Shepherds, shortly before her death.

Opera as court entertainment continued, often under enlightened patronage. It was in Venice, in 1637, that the first public opera house was opened. Venice was a commercial republic, ruled by an oligarchy, but without a royal court. The commercial aspect of opera could here be exploited, so that by the end of the century there were seven Venetian opera houses, dominated, after the death of Monteverdi in 1643, by the composer Cavalli, followed by Legrenzi. Venetian opera, not uninfluenced at first by the opera of Rome, spread throughout Italy and to other parts of Europe. As a more popular form than early courtly opera, it offered a mixture of the serious and the comic. Monteverdi’s Orfeo had no comic relief, but his two later surviving operas, written for Venice in the early 1640s, include elements of comedy. They also followed a convention now established, that of the happy ending. There was still, as before, a strong element of spectacle, with elaborate stage machinery that allowed transformation scenes and grandiose effects, with a complementary extravagance of costume and decor. Leading composers of the later years of the 17th century and early years of the 18th also include Alessandro Scarlatti in Naples and Rome, father of the keyboard composer Domenico Scarlatti.

Early opera had involved madrigals, dramatic monody and set songs, or a mixture of these. As the 17th century went on, there developed a gradual distinction between recitative and aria. The first of these, lightly accompanied often simply by chords, follows the rhythm and stresses of speech without the formal structure of a melody. Recitative, in fact, is dialogue set to music. The aria is a song, often in a form that frames a middle section in identical outer sections, the second of which might be ornamented by the singer. While the plot may be carried forward by the recitative, the aria tends to embody one state of mind. Both had an important part to play in what followed, although audiences tended to pay more attention to arias and much less to recitative, which seemed tedious.

Opera Seria

The later years of the 17th century brought the beginnings of operatic reform. This came about partly as a result of French criticism that opera libretti were not based on the Aristotelian principles that dominated French classical tragedy, according to which the ‘dramatic unities’ of time, place and plot were to be observed. These demanded a closer connection between time in the drama and time on stage, some limit on the changes of place possible, since in Greek tragedy no change of scene was allowed, and a final unity of plot, without primitive diversion into unconnected sub-plots. Under the leadership of the librettist Apostolo Zeno in Venice, the art was purged of its comic elements. The new form, later known as opera seria, followed clear principles of classical propriety and led to a certain stylisation. There were clear categories of major and minor roles, usually for six or seven solo singers, and of the number and type of arias to be allocated to each. Subjects tended now to be historical rather than mythological. Opera seria held a central position in repertoire for three-quarters of the 18th century. It brought the rise to prominence of the castrato, now cast in the principal male roles, and allowed a similar importance and scale of fees to the prima donna, the first lady. Each would expect a similar number of arias of varied mood, sad, angry, brave or meditative, irrespective of the demands of the plot, while the secondary singers would have their own demands to make.

After Zeno the principal librettist was Metastasio, regarded as the most outstanding dramatist and poet of his time. The new libretti, the operatic texts, were set again and again by major composers of the day, including Vivaldi. The music, in fact, became relatively expendable. It was often a case of first the words, then the music. In England Handel had opera seria libretti adapted for the varied requirements of London audiences. He was followed in London, later in the century, by another German composer, Johann Christian Bach, the youngest son of old Johann Sebastian, but the art remained essentially an Italian one.

Opera Buffa

In the 18th century there was a parallel development of what was later known as opera buffa (comic opera). This had its roots in the ancient Roman comedy of Plautus and Terence and this in turn had been derived from ancient Greek New Comedy. Features of these were stock characters, comic and cunning servants, angry and parsimonious fathers, passionate lovers, amorous daughters and bragging soldiers. With them came a preoccupation with what was recognisable as ordinary life, however simplified. Another source of Italian comedy was found in the associated improvised theatre of the commedia dell’arte, with its similar array of stock characters. Opera buffa corresponded to contemporary spoken drama and opera texts owed a great deal to the work of the playwright Goldoni. Oddly enough, the earlier historical process was now reversed. In the 17th century tragedy had acquired comic elements. Now serious characters began to find a place in comic opera, which became less comic and more realistic. These more dramatically credible plots found a place in Italian operas such as those written in Vienna by Mozart and his librettist Lorenzo Da Ponte and their contemporaries.

Reform Opera

Serious Italian opera, again at first in Vienna, underwent a marked reform with the work of Gluck and the librettist Calzabigi. Between them they succeeded, largely under French influence, in introducing simplifications. The formal requirements of the old opera seria were reduced, allowing a greater degree of realism. Gluck, in fact, claimed that he made music the servant of poetry, never introducing novelties or distractions from the dramatic situation. He explained his principles clearly in his introduction to the opera Alceste, published in 1768. These had already been put into practice in 1762 with his version of the story of Orpheus, Orfeo ed Euridice (Orpheus and Eurydice).

From Rossini to Verdi

The 19th century in Italy brought some of the best-known operas of all. These are found first of all in Rossini, a master of comedy, as in Il barbiere di Siviglia (The Barber of Seville), in which the barber Figaro abets his master Count Almaviva in his wooing of Rosina and the gulling of her guardian, old Doctor Bartolo. Rossini also tackled more serious subjects, as in his heroic melodrama Tancredi, with its ingredients of love, jealousy, misunderstanding and final resolution either, as in the first version, in a conventional happy ending, or, as in the revised version, in the hero’s death. Tancredi provides a demanding title role characteristic of the so-called bel canto style that Rossini so much admired. This involved a fine voice and the flexibility and evenness of tone to cope with elaborately florid vocal writing.

In Italian opera Rossini was followed by Bellini and Donizetti. The former had a mastery of extended lyrical melodies, shown in the intense romanticism of operas like Norma, with its story of love and heroic self-sacrifice by the Druid priestess of the title. Donizetti showed an equally marked dramatic sense, exemplified in Lucia di Lammermoor (Lucy of Lammermoor), based on a novel by Sir Walter Scott and including what became a popular operatic element, a mad scene for the heroine. His sense of comedy is evident in L’elisir d’amore (The Elixir of Love), with its quack doctor and forlorn lover, and in Don Pasquale, the fooling of the elderly bachelor of the title by a pair of young lovers, anxious to be united. Stock characters of Italian comedy occur in both.

The 1840s brought to prominence one of the greatest of all operatic composers. Verdi held a leading position in Italian opera for some half a century and continues to dominate operatic repertoire. From Nabucco (Nebuchadnezzar) in 1842 to Falstaff in 1893 he served, as he claimed, in the galley, to produce masterpiece after masterpiece. In these he created a very personal amalgamation of current trends of increased dramatic power and cogency, influenced at times by France and at times by Germany, but always essentially Italian in his own idiom. His career coincided with the rise of Italian nationalism and often his operas suggested a contemporary relevance. This is found, for example, in the chorus of Hebrew slaves in Nabucco and in the chorus of the oppressed people of Scotland in his Shakespearian Macbeth. It was Shakespeare, whose work had a new appeal in a period of relative freedom from earlier classical convention, who inspired Verdi’s last two operas, the tragedy Otello and the fine comedy of Falstaff, based on The Merry Wives of Windsor.

Verismo and Puccini

The later years of the century brought verismo (realism), a reflection of current literary trends, in Mascagni’s Cavalleria Rusticana (Rustic Chivalry), a down-to-earth story of love and jealousy in a village, peasant setting, and Leoncavallo’s Pagliacci (Actors). This last brought to the opera a police-court murder case, in which a jealous actor had killed his faithless wife on the stage. Pagliacci provides a famous example of the dramatic treatment of drama itself, a contrast between the actor himself and the part he is forced to play.

Realism of this kind had its effect on Puccini, whose operas form a major part of modern repertoire, from Manon Lescaut and Tosca to Turandot. While he might seek the exotic in the Japanese setting of Madama Butterfly or the China of Turandot, in

Tosca, in spite of its historical setting, he presented a story of political intrigue, murder and deception of contemporary relevance. Like Verdi, Puccini too was able to provide a successful synthesis of current musical and dramatic trends.

20th Century and Beyond

Opera has, of course, continued in Italy, both in its more traditional form and in modern experiment. The story has not ended. The later 20th century and the new millennium offer obvious difficulties of succinct summary, with the general musical eclecticism that has characterised music and the other arts.


France has had its own dramatic and operatic tradition. While Italian opera has had some influence, affected itself by its contact with the principles of French classical drama, French opera has remained true to its own cultural and linguistic traditions.

Comédie-ballet and Tragédie lyrique

Paradoxically French opera owes its origin to a composer of Italian origin. Jean-Baptiste Lully was brought to France as a boy and as time went on established himself in a leading position in the musical life of his adopted country. In collaboration with Molière he contributed to the art of the comédie-ballet and with the poet Quinault he created the French five-act tragédie lyrique, itself indebted both to earlier French forms of ballet and drama and to Italy. Lully came to hold a dominant position, with a royal monopoly that gave him control over music in the theatre. While it is now usual to perform Molière’s comedies without their music or their ballet, the plays were originally conceived with a closely related element of dance and music. Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, for example, which has had other more recent musical offshoots, finds a natural place for music as Monsieur Jourdain, the nouveau riche of the title, tries to acquire the arts of a gentleman. In addition to the comic musical episodes of his singing lesson and the scene in which he is supposedly ennobled by a Turkish Mufti, there is a final comic ballet for a mixture of French, Spanish, Italian and other dancers and singers. The form was stifled when Lully claimed ownership not only of the music but of the texts and succeeded in exercising intolerable control over Molière’s collaboration with another composer.

The tragédie lyrique created by Lully and the poet Quinault was not necessarily tragic but it was, at least, serious in its treatment of subjects usually drawn from mythology. The tradition was continued by composers such as Campra and Charpentier and resumed with signal success by Rameau from the 1730s onwards. These operas, however, have never found a place in international repertoire. They belonged essentially to the French court of the ancien régime and often had political relevance in prologues that praised the King and plots that reflected recent royal successes.

Opéra Comique

As in Italy, comic opera itself developed from more popular sources in the 18th century, notably from the Paris Fair Theatres, the Foires. Here existing tunes were often used for new words, as they were to be in The Beggar’s Opera in England. Travelling companies of players and the actors of the Italian theatre played an important part in the development of a form that mixed speech and music and closely involved a popular audience. As the century went on, what had often been a coarse form of entertainment developed into something much more acceptable to the educated. Writers like Favart and the social philosopher Rousseau turned to simple country life for their plots, although the picture they offer is highly idealised.

The 1750s brought the famous quarrel between those who favoured the Italian opera and those who held to older French traditions. This revived a deep-seated opposition between the French and the Italian that had occurred 100 years before, when the Italian-born Cardinal Mazarin was blamed by politicians for the high cost of Italian opera that he had had staged in Paris and was forced into exile. Now, in 1752, an Italian company presented a series of Italian shorter, lighter-hearted intermezzos in Paris with reasonable success. The literary war that arose, known as the Querelle des Bouffons, was initiated by the German diplomat and critic, Baron Friedrich Melchior von Grimm, at one time a friend of the Mozarts. He had harsh comments to make on French opera and was later joined in his strictures by Rousseau. Their attacks led to a series of pamphlets, espousing one side or the other. While the Italian troupe engaged at the Opéra duly left Paris in 1754, Italian influence remained, to lead to a new form of French comic opera of greater musical and dramatic interest.

Reform and Revolution

In the 1770s Gluck’s reformed opera was introduced to Paris, treating very differently the kind of subjects that had been the substance of the tragédie lyrique. French versions of his earlier Italian operas, already staged in Vienna, were now mounted in Paris. Gluck was able, in fact, to show a new compromise. The subjects of his operas might be drawn from classical mythology and legend, like the subjects chosen by Lully, but these were treated in a modern way. The operas were less stylised and very much more dramatic in their effect. At the same time the form of so-called opéra comique could also turn its attention to more serious subjects, as comic opera had in Italy, catering largely for a new middle-class audience. The period before the Revolution also brought the building of provincial opera houses, where such works would provide the general repertoire.

The Revolution brought obvious changes. French serious opera, in the form of the tragédie lyrique, was essentially associated with the monarchy, and had, in any case, been affected by the Paris operas of Gluck, with their new element of dramatic realism. The 1790s, however, demanded work of revolutionary relevance. This trend lasted only a short time. The new century brought a reorganisation of opera throughout the country under Napoleon, who instituted reforms in the opera in Paris itself, exercising a limiting control over all theatres. Under the restored Bourbon monarchy opera flourished. The period saw the success in Paris of Rossini and his operas written for the French stage. At the same time there was a continuation of the opéra comique by composers like Auber, Halévy, Berlioz and Bizet. Subjects varied from the light-hearted to the tragically serious, with productions at the Opéra-Comique, the company established in 1714, distinguished from those at the Opéra, the leading official company, by their less formal requirements. French opéra comique, in the 19th century at least, does not have to be comic; the descriptive term indicates a much wider category of work.

Grand Opéra

From the later 1820s Paris saw the creation of operas of greater pretensions in the grand opéra staged by the Opéra itself. These operas, which reach a height of grandeur and spectacle in the work of Meyerbeer, were held in the highest esteem. The first grand opéra, in 1828, was Auber’s La Muette de Portici (The Dumb Girl of Portici), followed in 1829 by Rossini’s last opera Guillaume Tell (William Tell). From Meyerbeer came Le Prophète (The Prophet), Les Huguenots (The Huguenots) and L’Africaine (The African Maid). These involved elaborate and complex spectacle. The scenery offered a degree of realism and often of grandeur. Crowd scenes allowed the chorus to act, rather than stand in formal poses, while music added to general effect. Examples of grand opéra retain in themselves their own place in operatic history but also deserve attention for the effect they had on other opera on a similarly grand and spectacular scale, works by Verdi and by Wagner. Socially the Opéra was important. Its magnificence reflected the growing wealth and prosperity of the country and of its upper classes.

The Opéra-Comique

French opera continued in the 19th century with the official company known as the Opéra-Comique, itself derived from the tradition of the same name and allowing more freedom in choice of subject and treatment. The company had been established early in the preceding century, derived from the performances of the Paris Fairs. It had amalgamated with the Paris Italian Theatre and then with other establishments offering similar repertoire. In particular, the Opéra-Comique, in the various theatres in which it performed, allowed some spoken dialogue. Outstanding examples of works staged by the Opéra-Comique include Gounod’s Faust and Bizet’s Carmen. Neither of these, of course, is a comedy. In Gounod’s opera Faust sells his soul to the Devil, a bargain from which he is finally rescued by the intervention of the spirit of the girl he has seduced. Carmen is a story of low life in Spain, a tale of criminals, jealousy and murder that has much in common with Italian verismo. The tradition continued with some of the operas of Massenet, a composer of importance in the last part of the 19th century. His Manon, in which the heroine is convicted of immorality and transported, to die in the American desert, was staged by the Opéra-Comique, as was his treatment of the story of Cinderella, Cendrillon.

Opéra Bouffe

It would be impossible to leave Paris without mention, at least, of the genre of French opéra bouffe in the second half of the 19th century. This owes its name to Jacques Offenbach and is very much lighter in style than the comedies of opéra comique, which, by comparison, grew in seriousness of purpose. Best known of Offenbach’s works in this form is Orphée aux enfers (Orpheus in the Underworld). This mocks the serious legend tackled earlier by Monteverdi and by Gluck, among many others. Now Orpheus is glad to be rid of Eurydice, while she is quite happy to enjoy herself in the Underworld, where the Blessed Spirits have greeted her with a spirited can-can. Opéra bouffe is light-hearted operetta, designed to satirise and to entertain. As such it seems typical of the French Second Empire, the period of Napoleon III, brought to a disastrous end in the defeat at Sedan in 1870.

20th Century and Beyond

The new century brought various changes. The traditional form of opéra comique had come to involve itself in more serious subjects, and composers understandably preferred other descriptive titles for works that lacked any trace of comedy. The early years brought Debussy’s remarkable Pelléas et Mélisande, based on the play by Maurice Maeterlinck, set in an impressionistic pre-Raphaelite world. Other French operas reflected the interests and trends of the day. Ravel collaborated, after the First World War, with the writer Colette in his delightful L’Enfant et les sortilèges (The Child and the Magic Spells), in which a naughty child is tormented by his victims. Darius Milhaud collaborated with Paul Claudel in Christophe Colomb (Christopher Columbus) and Francis Poulenc with the surrealist poet Guillaume Apollinaire in Les Mamelles de Tirésias (The Breasts of Tiresias). Later in life he was to tackle the weightier subject of religious martyrdom in Dialogues des Carmélites (Carmelite Dialogues), while Olivier Messiaen turned to the life of St Francis for a subject.


The many courts of Germany and of the Habsburg Empire and its capital Vienna were open to influence from both Italy and France. It was, indeed, one of the achievements of great German composers of the late Baroque period to bring about their own synthesis of Italian, French and German. This is heard in one form in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach and in another in the music of Handel. While Hamburg, even in Handel’s brief time there, found a place for German-language opera, it was, in general, Italian opera that predominated. In Vienna the Emperor Joseph II attempted, principally in the 1780s, to establish a German opera, the National-Singspiel. It was to this that Mozart contributed his successful Die Entführung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio), but the Emperor’s early attempts were unsuccessful.


The traditional German Singspiel had had a longer history, parallel to the popular comedy of Italy and France. As in those countries, the division between the purely popular and the more formal and literary comedy diminished. This led to a form of German-language comic opera, with some spoken dialogue, on a variety of subjects. In some, like Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute), elements of earlier popular comedy continue. The comic bird-catcher Papageno is one of a long line of such characters, an ordinary man set in the most extraordinary surroundings. Comedy lies, as always, in the inappropriate situation and the down-to-earth reaction to it.

Singspiel continued also in a serious vein, reflecting the parallel developments in Italy and France, as well as in German theatre, with its middle-class drama, if one may so translate the word bürgerlich (bourgeois), without giving it a pejorative meaning. Beethoven’s only opera, Fidelio, first staged in Vienna in 1805, deals in generally serious terms with a loyal wife’s attempt to rescue her imprisoned husband. Carl Maria von Weber’s work Der Freischütz (The Marksman), still a Singspiel in its language and elements of spoken dialogue, includes all the elements of German romanticism and leads the way forward to full-blown German Romantic opera.

German Romantic Opera

Vienna brought together Italian opera and German Singspiel. Gluck and his librettist Calzabigi had brought about a reform, influenced, in some respects, by French theatre and in some works by the opéra comique. Here, as in the major cities in Germany, two forms of opera co-existed, the Italian and the German. The 19th century, however, with all its political and cultural changes, gave a new impetus to German opera, not only to Beethoven and to Weber, but to composers like Marschner, Spohr and Lortzing.

Richard Wagner

Towering over his contemporaries in ambition and achievement, Richard Wagner introduced, from the 1840s onwards, new musical and dramatic conceptions of the art of opera or music drama. At first he added to the existing Romantic tradition in Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman), Tannhäuser and Lohengrin. The first of these tells of the ghostly Dutch sea-captain, fated to sail with his phantom crew until redeemed by a woman’s disinterested love. Tannhäuser turns to the medieval poet of that name and his temptation by the worldly pleasures offered by the Mount of Venus, while Lohengrin offers a story derived from the legends of the Knights of the Grail. It was, however, with his tetralogy Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), ParsifalTristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Mastersingers of Nuremberg) that he created a new and comprehensive art form. While the last of these praises true German art in a plot based on the activities of the Mastersingers of the 16th century, The Ring is a massive conception dealing with the superhuman. The four works, to be performed on successive nights in the theatre Wagner built in Bayreuth, are closely interwoven, related by recurrent themes and fragments of themes associated with ideas and characters in the drama. The plot of this massive operatic cycle is derived from Teutonic legend, stories of the old gods and the final destruction of their Valhalla.


Operetta seems typical of Vienna in the later 19th century, exemplified by the music of Johann Strauss, in works such as Die Fledermaus (The Bat), with its light-hearted intrigue and attempted marital deception. The tradition of operetta found other champions in composers like Franz von Suppé, and then, leading into the new century, in Franz Lehár and his contemporaries, with parallel success in Berlin. By the 1920s, however, the formula had worn thin, gradually to be replaced by musical comedy.

After Wagner

While Wagner may overshadow his immediate successors, his influence was enormous, reflected in the operas of Humperdinck and even, however reluctantly, of his pupil, Wagner’s son Siegfried Wagner. Humperdinck’s operas continue to explore a German world, but rather one of the Grimm Brothers’ fairy-tales than of gods and heroes. In 1893 Humperdinck won his first success with his opera Hänsel und Gretel (Hansel and Gretel), following this with other fairy-tale operas. Siegfried Wagner turns to weightier German legends in a series of operas that are only now finding an audience.

Richard Strauss

The true successor of Wagner is Richard Strauss, particularly in the remarkable series of operas in which he collaborated with the writer Hugo von Hofmannsthal, after the earlier success of Salome, based on Oscar Wilde’s play of that name. Wilde’s work had been banned in England, and Salome as an opera suggested new realms of sensuality to be explored, both dramatically and musically. Elektra in 1909 was followed by the moving nostalgia of Der Rosenkavalier (The Knight of the Rose), a work of comedy and poignancy, an autumnal reflection of a mood of the time, set in the age of Mozart. Strauss continued after Hofmannsthal’s death in collaboration with Stefan Zweig and others. His last opera, Capriccio, was first staged in Munich in 1942. His debt to Wagner may be seen as musical rather than dramatic, reflected in orchestration and harmony.

The Weimar Republic and National Socialism

The intervention of National Socialism had, in opera as elsewhere, an immensely damaging effect on the general creativity of German opera. The 1920s had brought a period of experiment, often outrageous enough in its defiance of tradition. Composers like Franz Schreker had explored the exotic world opened by Strauss’s Salome. He was dismissed from his position in Berlin and died in 1934. Other younger composers like Schoenberg, Zemlinsky, Weill, Goldschmidt and Hindemith were driven into exile and often, therefore, into other forms of musical activity. America, where some took refuge, lacked the traditions of the German opera house. Kurt Weill, who had collaborated with Bertolt Brecht in Berlin in Die Dreigroschenoper (The Threepenny Opera), a modernised and political version of The Beggar’s Opera, turned to the American musical. Schoenberg left his great opera Moses und Aron (Moses and Aaron) unfinished. Zemlinsky did the same, never completing his last opera. Goldschmidt in England found almost as little opportunity as Hindemith in America, both having suffered from official censorship before their forced or chosen emigration. Schoenberg’s pupil Berg, however, had added his own very distinctive contribution to German opera in Wozzeck, a study of madness and murder. At the time of his death in Vienna in 1935 he left his second opera, Lulu, unfinished.

Contemporary German Opera

Germany and Austria continue to offer a fertile ground for new opera. This is encouraged by the existence of a large number of efficient provincial opera houses and a measure of enlightened public support. There have been notable new operas from composers such as Hans Werner Henze and remarkable experiment from Karlheinz Stockhausen, among others, expanding the possibilities of music theatre.


England, like other European countries apart from Germany, France and Italy, lacked an established national tradition of opera until the 20th century. Henry Purcell, in the later 17th century, wrote a wealth of incidental music and contributed to a genre that recent scholars have called semi-opera, an amalgamation of spoken drama and a strong and often supernatural musical element. It was Italian opera, however, that entertained the fashionable world in the 18th century, in spite of the damaging effect of the anti-opera of John Gay, The Beggar’s Opera. This last began a new form, the English ballad opera, with its use of popular melodies. The musical borrowings, at least, must recall the practice of the Paris Fair Theatres.

19th Century

While there were English, Scottish and Irish composers of opera, there is relatively little trace of their work in continuing repertoire. Two Irish composers, however, Balfe and Wallace, are remembered, respectively, for The Bohemian Girl and Maritana, staged in London in the 1840s. Another composer of paternal Irish origin, Arthur Sullivan, survives triumphantly in his operettas, collaborations with W.S. Gilbert.

National Opera

The 20th century brought an element of national opera through Vaughan Williams, Holst and others. Their work in this form was largely for local audiences. A more markedly international school of English opera started with Britten’s opera Peter Grimes in 1945. The subject was local but its implications, as a study of an outsider in a closed community, were much wider. This was followed by a remarkable series of works, chamber operas and operas for the larger stage, culminating in Death in Venice, based on the novella by Thomas Mann.


In those parts of the Habsburg Empire that were later subsumed for much of the 20th century in Czechoslovakia there arose, with the general nationalism of the mid-19th century, national opera. This is represented in Prague by Smetana and Dvořák. Smetana’s The Bartered Bride, in its Czech village setting, is a comedy that continues in international repertoire. Dvořák’s Czech operas have travelled less satisfactorily, with language an obvious barrier. It was primarily in the second and third decades of the 20th century that the Moravian composer Janáček came to wider notice with operas that depend, in their vocal lines, on the intonations and rhythms of speech. National traditions of Czech, Slovak and Moravian opera continue.


Italian opera was brought to Russia in the 18th century and Italian composers were also involved in the setting of Russian libretti. This may be seen as part of the westernising policies of Peter the Great, much as Kemal Atatürk in Turkey in the 20th century saw the introduction of opera as a concomitant part of his programme of modernisation.

Russian Nationalism

A true Russian tradition of art music was established in the 19th century. This was started by Glinka with the supposedly historical opera A Life for the Tsar, followed by Ruslan and Lyudmila, based on Pushkin and exploring more exotic, oriental elements, as Russian composers were to continue to do. Three, at least, of the five nationalist composers who made up what became known as The Five (or The Mighty Handful) made notable contributions to Russian opera. Mussorgsky achieved this, in particular, in his historical Boris Godunov and Borodin in his exotic Prince Igor. Rimsky-Korsakov may be better known abroad for his orchestral works, but he also wrote a series of important operas, ending with the exoticism of The Golden Cockerel, which, after trouble with the censors, was only staged after his death. Tchaikovsky, not one of The Five, but thoroughly Russian in his music, is known in international repertoire for two operas based on Pushkin, Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades.

Shostakovich, Prokofiev and Stravinsky

Russian opera continued in the 20th century, particularly in the work of Shostakovich, whose Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District won official condemnation. Its subject might have seemed quite acceptable to a Communist regime that believed in the social and political purpose of the arts. The opera is based on a story by Nikolay Leskov in which a young wife murders her father-in-law and, with the help of her lover, her husband, crimes for which she and her lover are punished. This certainly follows political teaching in showing the degeneracy of the capitalists at the heart of the drama. For Stalin, however, the score was chaos instead of music.

Prokofiev left Russia in 1917 and spent a number of years abroad, before finally returning home in 1936, in time for the official attack on Shostakovich. For Chicago he had written the opera The Love for Three Oranges, but his next opera, The Fiery Angel, was not performed until after the composer’s death in 1953. His most ambitious opera in Russia was the monumental War and Peace, based on Tolstoy. This was completed in 1948 but not staged until 1960.

Stravinsky, in exile from Russia, contributed to the genre in very Russian style in his earlier period, but his later opera The Rake’s Progress, however characteristic in musical idiom, belongs rather to English and American repertoire in subject and language. With a plot based on Hogarth’s series of engravings, the work is neoclassical in form and texture, combining the Rake’s progress to disaster with the legend of Faust.


It may seem cavalier to include the rest of the operatic world in a geographical ragbag. South America at first inherited operatic traditions from its colonial past, from Spain and Portugal. The United States also relied on European tradition but, in the 20th century in particular, went on to develop its own musical idiom. In opera this is reflected in the work of Aaron Copland, Samuel Barber and others. Most characteristic, although with no direct successors, is Gershwin’s black opera Porgy and Bess, while the expatriate Italian composer Menotti added his own very personal contribution in operas like The Medium and The Consul. Although many composers, forced into exile from Germany and German-dominated countries in Europe, found a place in the United States, there was little scope for opera. Some were able to work in Hollywood, while others, like Kurt Weill, made a dramatic contribution to the American musical in music that often had its basis in earlier operatic experience.

In Europe Spain and Portugal shared in the earlier developments of Italian opera and provided inspiration for other countries in choice of setting. The popular Spanish zarzuela, with its song, dance and spoken dialogue, has a long history, but flourished particularly in the second half of the 19th century. Composers who wrote operas drawing on national sources of inspiration include Enrique Granados, Manuel de Falla and Roberto Gerhard.

Countries of Eastern Europe have again built on national musical and cultural traditions. In Hungary Kodály offered what has been described as a Singspiel in the very Hungarian Háry János, dealing with the comic exaggerations of a boastful old soldier. His contemporary Bartók left only one opera, Bluebeard’s Castle, a work that makes greater demands on an audience. In Poland Szymanowski made his own distinctive contribution to operatic repertoire with King Roger, a medieval drama based on the Bacchae of Euripides, echoing the conflict that the philosopher Nietzsche had seen again between Apollo and Dionysus, the serenely rational and the passionately irrational. While the talents of these composers may not have been primarily operatic, all three contributed to the genre in characteristic ways.


The three great streams that have come together in European opera have flowed from Italy, in the first place, then from France and from Germany. The same might be said of the great body of Western art music. It was that mixture of Italian melody, French dance and German intellect and technique that created Western music as it is now known and the genre of opera that came from it. To this amalgam have been added the colours and cultural flavouring provided by other countries, with the later development of their own individual operatic traditions. Opera itself is essentially a synthesis of the arts. Its music remains a synthesis of different national cultures, absorbed and then diffused once more. Since its early development it has had its enemies, cynics who can find nothing but the ridiculous in stage performances where characters, often in extreme circumstances, sing rather than speak or scream. Yet it is arguably the highest of all arts, the sum and summit of them all, the art, as an early composer remarked, of princes.

This is just a brief summary of opera tradition and is used as a guide only.  An in-depth guide about composers and their works can be found in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, the most comprehensive publication on the subject.


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Singing In A Choir

singing in a choirSinging In A Choir

Have you ever wanted to be part of some kind of entertainment but were too embarrassed to be on a stage by yourself? Well a choir might be just the thing for you. This guide will help you get started singing in a choir.

Consider the type of choir you want to join.
Whether you like traditional choral music, barber shop, gospel or show music, there will almost definitely be a choir out there which suits you.

 Find a local choir.
Ask around and search the internet to help find some local choirs you could join. Also, pay attention to advertisements in local meeting places, as it may be possible there is something going on there.

Contact the person who runs the choir to ask about the possibility of joining.
Depending on the choir you have chosen, you may have to audition, but many choirs are happy to let anyone join. It also may be a good idea to check at this point whether or not you will need to pay for membership, uniforms, or music.

Go to rehearsals.
Being in a choir is a commitment – only going to half of the rehearsals will let down the other choir members. If you don’t have the time, don’t join.

Make friends – Choirs aren’t just about singing.
The friends you make at choir can be friends for life, so don’t forget to socialize.

Learn to read the music.
You should try to pick this up as you go along, so don’t worry about it too much. If you’re having difficulty, ask somebody who sits near you to point you in the right direction; they will probably be more than happy to help.

Listen to the people around you.Unlike solo singing, the point of singing in a choir isn’t to stand out, but to blend in. If you’re singing too loud or out of tune it will be obvious. Listen to the people around you and try to match your singing to theirs.

Enjoy yourself.
Choirs can give you some of the most amazing experiences of your life and help you achieve things you could not have done alone. Music is intended to be enjoyed by both listener and performer, so if you’re not enjoying it then it probably isn’t right for you. Don’t feel you have to stay if you don’t like it.

You don’t have to be good at singing to sing in a good choir

Practice makes perfect, so don’t worry if you don’t start out brilliantly.

When auditioning or performing for vocal placement select a song that works for your voice and perform it naturally. The choir director needs to know if you are Soprano, Alto, Bass or Tenor so they can place you accordingly they do not need to know how great a falsetto you have.

If you are a religious person church choirs often allow any member of the congregation to join without any strict auditions.

Younger individuals should consider children’s choirs or choirs with a children’s section as the unchanged voice of a child will often not fit with the harmonics of an all adult choir.

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